Updated: Jul 17, 2019
It’s the method of cooling sample may be an inert gas or mere atoms to near absolute zero by exploiting their quantum and/ or thermodynamic properties.
Methods to achieve
Laser cooling – it includes different methods like doppler cooling, Sisyphus cooling, Raman sideband cooling, Zeeman slower etc. It is the method where an object (usually atom) is subjected to bombarding of photons (light particles). These bombarded photons are absorbed for excitation of electron and then after de-excitation they are re-emitted, but this time with higher frequency i.e. higher energy, thus reducing the energy of atom. This energy which is reduced is compensated by K.E of the atom which actually internal energy indicating temperature.
Cooling by phonons – this almost same as laser cooling with one difference that re-emitted particle is particle of sound (phonons).
Cooling by diffusion – this method is governed by henry’s law. Two inert gases say helium 3 and helium 4 are put together, due to Van der Waal forces these gasses diffuse into each other. Since in the process the gas molecules go from pure state to diffused state, the entropy increased and the process is endothermic. This absorption of heat can be used to cool down the subject material.
Doppler cooling- 150 milli kelvin
Cooling by diffusion 23 milli kelvin
Some quantum computer function at -273 Celsius which is just 0.02 degree above the absolute zero.
In super conductors
In Gravitation wave detecting equipment
Cores of supercomputers
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